A recent speech, American heart surgeon and president of the American Vegetarian Society to the hospital is committed to advocating the "oil-free vegetarian to prevent heart disease and help heart patients recover soon, which quoted some of his personal scientific argument and clinical trials support his own point of view, even pictures of vascular stenosis after the diet were you able to "miracle"-like recovery, plaque blocking disappear, my doctor colleagues stunned, amazed, just a bit weird, this strict diet is really effective?
Singapore, known as the "gourmet paradise", the people so eating can be implemented? Measure of such a diet, but also from the perspective of evidence-based medicine there is sufficient evidence to prevent heart disease? If it is so effective, why not get recognized by the American Heart Association? Blood cholesterol with coronary heart disease incidence significant correlation is ironclad irrefutable truth.
From the lower risk of coronary heart disease of the population of the countries and regions, and emigrated to Western countries, to accept the local eating habits will lead to increased incidence of diet and heart hypothesis, which provides a strong support, as the saying goes, "the disease from the mouth, coronary heart disease in this example is really really.
Singapore is known as the "gourmet paradise", cardiac patients often have to face the struggle of the food.
Cholesterol in the blood, the majority (80%) of their own liver to manufacture. Foods containing excess cholesterol and saturated fatty acids (saturated fatty acid) can also increase the blood ("bad") cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) level. Low amount of cholesterol in food (90 g less than 100 mg cholesterol), including lean meat, fish, sea cucumbers, crabs, protein, skim milk and fruit acid cheese; the amount of cholesterol in food (100-199 mg cholesterol) lobster, abalone, oil loaded sardines, whole milk, natural yoghurt. High levels of cholesterol in food (> 200 mg cholesterol), including brain, kidney, liver, squid, cuttlefish, fish eggs, egg yolks and whole eggs.
Trans fatty acids (Trans fat) is more common in margarine, bread and biscuits, and long-term high-temperature heating oil sold in the shop, can raise blood cholesterol and triglycerides, but also lower HDL ("good") cholesterol. We should also recognize that to minimize the intake of the diet, daily <1% of the total thermal energy.
According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey showed that there were eight of every 10 people of excessive saturated fat intake. People in the intake of fat, 39% saturated fat, 30% fat content than the advocate of the American Heart Association (CHA) is much higher. Largest source of the Singaporeans saturated fat, 17.5% from coconut milk, rice, noodles, meat and dessert, 11.9% biscuits, cakes, peanuts and snacks; 10% cooking, 9.7% chow mein, and 7.4% from milk coffee and malt beverages. Conversely, if the saturated fatty acids in the food with unsaturated fatty acids (unsaturated fatty acid) to replace it, can reduce "bad" cholesterol. Single non-saturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acid) can be found in olive oil and some dairy products, while the number of non-saturated fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acid) is the sunflower and corn oil, fish oil rich in Omega-3 fatty acids in edible fish and fish oil can lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride.
Low-fat diet intervention with coronary heart disease test
In medicine today, the emphasis is on the medical argument information in order to determine the effectiveness of a therapy and harmful. In the past 50 years, many of the strict control of epidemiological studies have confirmed that saturated fat intake and coronary heart disease mortality has a direct relationship. Because of these, only diet intervention in the therapy of coronary heart disease laid the foundation.
Dietary interventions (primary prevention trials) to reduce fat intake and the use of non-saturated fatty acids can reduce myocardial infarction or sudden death in 30-64% of coronary heart disease in healthy subjects. The United States doctors healthy one studies have shown that eating fish once a week can reduce sudden cardiac death by 52% in the 11-year follow-up.
Secondary prevention trials (ie, in people with coronary heart disease, dietary interventions), such as Oslo (of OSLO) diet studies in non-saturated fatty acids to replace saturated fat, can significantly reduce cardiac mortality and myocardial infarction 44%. Even some trials such as the Heidelberg trial, St. Thomas atherosclerosis Subsidence of the vascular angiography for patients subside signs of atherosclerosis, the increase in coronary artery lumen, slow the disease process and effective control.
Special diet and its effectiveness
Diet advocated by Dr. Orish was subject to the attention of the medical profession, it contains the total calories of carbohydrates advocated by the majority (70%) accounted for <15% protein, saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content is quite. American Heart Association opposed to recommend this diet to the general population is limited to coronary heart disease has been diagnosed with "bad" cholesterol level is too high, and strong-willed high-risk patients, especially those who suffer from a hereditary blood lipids and obesity patients. Diabetic patients is not applicable to this diet.
Atkins diet has all the rage, this diet concept that restrict carbohydrate intake, you can mobilize stored body fat to achieve the purpose of weight loss, although this therapy can achieve weight loss efficacy, but in fact weight loss with subjects whether it can adhere to long-term calorie restriction is the key, and reduce carbohydrate intake has nothing to do. Moreover, this diet had no effect with blood cholesterol, but also have not confirmed any improvement on the heart, or hardening of the arteries. American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association denial and criticism, this type of diet that may lead to nutritional deficiencies, kidney disease and osteoporosis.
The most effective health diet, or the Mediterranean (of Mediterranean) diet. Of particular interest to people on the Mediterranean diet, its causes from the early epidemiological studies have shown that the inhabitants of the Mediterranean basin, coronary heart disease rate is lower than in Western countries residents. The traditional Mediterranean diet includes fruits, vegetables, dried fruit, unrefined grains; fat intake comes mainly from olive oil, saturated fat and dairy products less clothing, adequate intake of meat and poultry and moderate drinking of wine. This therapy in the recent 2011 meta-analysis can reduce the waist to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome, and enhance the "good" cholesterol, lower triglycerides, blood glucose and blood pressure. More reports indicate that long-term adherence to the Mediterranean diet, can reduce coronary disease mortality has an important influence and persuasion, guidance and recommendations on various countries and ethnic groups of healthy eating.
4 of the DASH diet for people with hypertension. Its design rich in fruits, vegetables, dried fruit, low-fat dairy products, low in saturated fat and total fat content. Clinical trials have shown that the DASH diet can help lower blood pressure, but also make cardiovascular mortality by 30% -50%, the benefit may come from the inside-rich fruits and vegetables, vitamin E, folate (folic acid), potassium (potassium ) and cellulose (fibers for).
View of the above various types of diet, American Heart Association guidelines were also revised, emphasized a comprehensive eating patterns, maintain a healthy weight, reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke, the guidelines emphasize the appropriate thermal energy intake to maintain normal body weight, reduce fat intake to less than 30% of the total calorie intake, saturated fat intake is limited to less than 10% of the summary of the amount. Cholesterol intake does not exceed 300 mg a day, increased consumption of fish twice a week, using the the DAPH class diet, low-salt diet (less than daily 6 g), control alcohol consumption (per day for men drinking no more than two per day for women drinking up time), in order to achieve the purpose of controlling blood pressure.
Healthy dietary recommendations
The adoption of any diet, need a pragmatic combination of the local diet from which to improve in order to obtain the patient's recognition and acceptance rate, vegan therapy can not gain wide acceptance in Singapore, it is difficult to maintain long-term, such as bent, may also lead to duplication of efforts effectiveness of the dietary guidelines of the Singapore Health Service can best meet the daily eating habits of the people, of which there are several points need to be emphasized:
(1) control of thermal energy intake
Young people (below 30 years of age), such as regular exercise, physical activity of moderate-to-strength, male daily intake of 3,000 calories to 3,500 calories, the women of 2000 calories to 2500 calories, but if you have over 60 years of age, but also less than sports, male daily intake should be less than 2000 calories, women should be reduced to 1800 calories. You know, people love to eat snacks inside of the hawker center, certain foods heat energy is high, such as a plate chicken rice contains 702 calories, a Char Kway Teow 743 calories, an oyster fry 650 calories, McDonald's hamburger calories 530 calories, so the choice of food products, should be in this regard some considerations.
(2) reduce fat intake
The choice of food can reduce the intake of fat, such as remove the chicken skin, eat chicken noodle soup instead of fried noodles, do not drink when you eat laksa soup with rice instead of chicken rice. Use a small amount of oil in home cooking, cooking, low-fat milk instead of whole milk or coconut milk. Fried foods 2 times a week, try to remove the grease before eating. Encourage boiled, steamed, grilled, and other methods of cooking food.
In fact, we can also find their wisdom from the ancients diet. The ancient Indian diet is divided into the Yue food (SATVIK), inert food (RAJASIK), and transgender food (TAMASIK), - quote from "Vedic". Yue foods, including fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains and nuts to eat, let inner peace such food is the best choice for a healthy diet. Inert refers to food fried, high-calorie corrosion food, refined cereals and polysaccharides more salt, they can make the heart calm and reduce deep stress and anxiety. Denatured foods include animal meat and easy drunk things, makes fatigue after eating, no vitality.
Admittedly, adhere to the Hyatt food to people who may be unrealistic, but still be able to achieve a reasonable diet with a variety of healthy food. To know that part of the dietary choices only heart-healthy lifestyle, we also pay attention to other risk factors such as avoiding obesity, emotional management, smoking cessation, exercise, etc. in order to "coronary heart disease in the givers".